Sunifiram Review: Dosage, Side Effects, and Stack Ideas
Sunifiram (1-benzoyl-4-propanoylpiperazine), a potent cognitive enhancer, is gaining popularity among the nootropic community. It belongs to the Ampakines group of nootropic supplements. These are powerful brain supplements that can improve memory, concentration, creativity, and more. Due to its rising popularity, we’ve put together a Sunifiram review. We’ll discuss the common uses for this Ampakine, the proper Sunifiram dosage, its side effects, and what you might experience while using this nootropic.
Sunifiram, also known as DM-235, is a piperazine alkaloid derived from its prototype Piracetam, one of the best nootropics for memory. Sunifiram is structurally related to Piracetam but has significantly higher potency. It also shows efficacy at much lower doses compared to Piracetam. Sunifiram stimulates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Stimulation of AMPA receptors typically causes enhancement of excitatory neurotransmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). Long-term potentiation refers to the strengthening of synapses over time, resulting in enhancement of memory.
Sunifiram stimulates glycine binding sites of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDR) in the brain’s hippocampus. This synthetic Ampakine also activates protein kinase C (PKC) and Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II or CaMKII). This activation leads to enhancement of LTP, further improving memory function. These reactions form the basis of Ampakine usage for reducing cognitive decline. For this reason, nootropic smart drugs such as Sunifiram are promising candidates for neurodegenerative disorders such Alzheimer’s disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. Further research is needed to fully understand the Sunifiram benefits in treated diseases related to cognitive impairment.
Clinical data is lacking on the Sunifiram experience in humans. However, studies in animal models have generated promising results. There are positive effects on memory and cognition in mice and rats using behavioral testing. Such tests include conditional avoidance, passive avoidance, Morris water maze test, matching-to-sample, and several other tasks. Despite the lack of human data, Sunifiram has been embraced by the nootropic community. Users have reported positive Sunifiram effects and experiences such as increased energy levels, awareness, mood, concentration, and an improved feeling of overall well-being. The cognitive enhancement from this nootropic is comparable to that of a Modafinil or Adderall
Clues for the proper Sunifiram dosage come from animal studies. Some of the findings in the animal studies are as follows:
Sunifiram was found to prevent amnesia induced by scopolamine, at a dose range of 0.01–0.1mk/kg. This dose is much lower than what Piracetam and Aniracetam require. Sunifiram also prevented amnesia induced by other compounds such as baclofen and mecamylamine.
Sunifiram also prevented scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats.
At a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, Sunifiram improved the performance of rats in the social-learning.
Oral administration of Sunifiram at doses 0.001–1.0 mg/kg significantly improved Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of OBX mice, animal models of depression.
Sunifiram considerably reduced total sleeping time in mice in response to pentobarbital at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg.
Sunifiram at 0.01mg/kg induced the release of acetylcholine (Ach) in the prefrontal cortex of rats.
Thus, the most suitable mid-range dose of Sunifiram in humans is approximately 4mg to 8mg, taken at most, three times per day. Sunifiram is far more potent than most racetams, and only small quantities are required to obtain the desired outcomes. New Sunifiram users should start with a lower dosage of 1mg and increase the dose as needed.
Sunifiram Side Effects
Detailed toxicological information for Sunifiram side effects is not available. However, current preclinical studies show no toxicity associated with Sunifiram taken at the recommended dosage. Although the Sunifiram experience is considered safe, some people report mild but adverse side effects such as headaches, nausea, insomnia, and anxiety. Reports of severe side effects of Ampakines
like Sunifiram are non-existent. Further pharmacological studies are needed to understand the toxicity and safety of using Sunifiram long term.
Stacking Sunifiram with other drugs such as Noopept may yield more useful results. Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) is a peptide nootropic that stimulates AMPA and NMDA receptors. With a Sunifiram Noopept stack, a ratio of 1:1 is considered adequate. Noopept works best when used as a base of the nootropic stack. Adding a choline source which generates acetylcholine may help with the headache symptoms associated with a Noopept Sunifiram stack. One of the most popular choline supplements is Alpha GPC. The benefits of Alpha GPC
are numerous and include much more than just canceling out headaches.
Outside of improved focus, concentration, and memory, many biohackers also take Noopept as a mood boosting supplement. It is considered a balanced nootropic with multiple cognitive enhancing benefits, making it a great addition to any stack.
The half-life of Sunifiram has been reported to be 30-45 mins. Thus, Sunifiram is removed from bloodstream faster, and this results in mitigation of side effects associated with the drug. The stimulant effects of Sunifiram have been reported to last about 2-4 hours. This timeframe is shorter than many other nootropics, but still long enough to be effective.
More research is needed to prove the positive impact of Ampakines before they become mainstream. We hope this Sunifiram review has helped you get a better understanding of using Ampakines for cognitive enhancement. Have you tried using Sunifiram yet? Let us know in the comments below!
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